This collection provides users with data concerning R&D expenditure and R&D personnel broken down by following institutional sectors: business enterprise (BES), government (GOV), higher education (HES), private non-profit (PNP) with the total of sectors.
All data are broken down by the above mentioned sectors of performance. The R&D expenditure is further broken down by source of funds, by type of costs, by economic activity (NACE Rev.2), by size class, by type of R&D, by fields of science, by socio-economic objectives and by regions (NUTS 2 level).
Besides R&D expenditures in basic unit National currency (MIO_NAC) the following units are available: Euro (MIO_EUR), Euro per inhabitant (EUR_HAB) Purchasing Power Standard (MIO_PPS), Purchasing Power Standard at 2005 prices (MIO_PPS_KP05), Purchasing Power Standard per inhabitant at constant 2005 prices (PPS_KP05_HAB), Percentage of GDP (PC_GDP) and Percentage of total R&D expenditure (PC_TOT - for the breakdown by source of funds).
R&D personnel data is available in full-time equivalent (FTE), in head count (HC), as a % of employment and as a % of labour force. The data is further broken down by occupation, by qualification, by gender, by size class, by citizenship, by age groups, by fields of science, by economic activity (NACE Rev.2) and by regions (NUTS 2 level).
The periodicity of R&D data is biennial except for the key R&D indicators (R&D expenditure, R&D personnel and Researchers by sectors of performance) which are transmitted annually by the EU Member States on the basis of a legal obligation from 2003 onwards. Some other breakdowns of the data may appear on annual basis based on voluntary data provisions. The data are collected through sample or census surveys, from administrative registers or through a combination of sources. R&D data are available for following countries and country groups: - All EU Member States, plus Candidate Countries, EFTA Countries, the Russian Federation, China, Japan, the United States and South Korea. - Country groups: EU-28, EU-15 and EA-18. R&D data are compiled in accordance to the guidelines laid down in the Proposed standard practice for surveys of research and experimental development - Frascati Manual (FM), OECD, 2002 .