Eurostat uses as a base for its work the OECD Benchmark Definition of Foreign Direct Investment Third Edition, a detailed operational definition fully consistent with the IMF Balance of Payments Manual, Fifth Edition, BPM5. Foreign direct investment (FDI) is the category of international investment made by an entity resident in one economy (direct investor) to acquire a lasting interest in an enterprise operating in another economy (direct investment enterprise). The lasting interest is deemed to exist if the direct investor acquires at least 10% of the voting power of the direct investment enterprise. FDI statistics record separately: 1) Inward FDI (or FDI in the reporting economy), namely investment by foreigners in enterprises resident in the reporting economy. 2) Outward FDI (or FDIabroad), namely investment by residents entities in affiliated enterprises abroad. FDI statistics record both the initial investment and all subsequent investment made by the direct investor, either in the form of equity capital, or in the form of loans, or in the form of reinvesting earnings. Investment made through other affiliated enterprises of the same group of the direct investor should also be recorded according to the international methodology. There are three main indicators: FDI flows, stocks and income. The indicators described in more detail below are presented in the complete tables with a breakdown by partner country or region and a breakdown by the kind of activity in which FDI is made. In the table called "Main indicators" there is a reduced breakdown by partners and data for total activity only. See the part on classification system for more detail. See also the User's guideon the structure on the database and for practical information on data downloading. 1) FDI flows denote the new investment made during the period. FDI flows are recorded in the Balance of Payments financial account. Total FDI flows are broken down by kind of instrument used for making the investment:
comprises equity in branches, all shares in subsidiaries and associates (except non-participating, preferred shares that are treated as debt securities and are included under other FDI capital) and other contributions such as the provision of machinery.
consist of the direct investor's share (in proportion to equity participation) of earnings not distributed by the direct investment enterprise. Reinvested earnings are an imputed transaction. Reinvested earnings are also recorded with opposite sign among FDI income (see below). This recording represents not distributed income as being earned by the direct investor and reinvested in the direct investment enterprise at the same time.
Other FDI capital (loans)
covers the borrowing and lending of funds, including debt securities and trade credits between direct investors and direct investment enterprises. Debt transactions between affiliated financial intermediaries recorded under direct investment flows are limited to permanent debt. 2) FDI stocks (or positions) denote the value of the investment at the end of the period. FDI stocks are recorded in the International Investment Position. Outward FDI stocks are recorded as assets of the reporting economy, inward FDI stocks as liabilities. Similarly with flows, FDI stocks are broken down by kind of instrument. However, there are only two categories instead of three:
Equity capital and reinvested earnings
is the value of the own capital of the enterprise, including the value of own reserves that are accumulated from past reinvested earnings. Reserves corresponding to reinvested earnings are not shown separately from other equity capital as in the case of flows.
Other FDI capital
is the stock of debts (assets or liabilities) between the direct investors and the direct investment enterprise. 3) FDI income is the income accruing to direct investors during the period. FDI income is recorded in the current account of the Balance of Payments. Total FDI income is broken down by kind of income. The categories of FDI income available are linked to the breakdown of FDI flows and stocks by kind of instrument, namely:
Dividends payable in the period and branch profits remitted to the direct investor, gross of any withholding taxes. Dividends include payments due on common and preferred shares.
See definition under FDI flows.
Interest on loans
Interest accrued in the period on loans (other FDI capital) with affiliated enterprises, gross of any withholding tax. 4) FDI intensity Out of FDI annual data, an indicator useful to measure EU market integration is also calculated and disseminated in the domain Structural Indicators:
FDI intensity as % of GDP: Average of inward and outward FDI flows divided by GDP. A higher index indicates higher new FDI during the period in relation to the size of the economy as measured by GDP.
If this index increases over time, then the country/zone is becoming more integrated with the international economy.