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新西兰

  • Governor General:Dame Patsy Reddy
  • 首相:Jacinda Ardern
  • 首都:Wellington
  • 语言:English (de facto official) 89.8%, Maori (de jure official) 3.5%, Samoan 2%, Hindi 1.6%, French 1.2%, Northern Chinese 1.2%, Yue 1%, other or not stated 20.5%, New Zealand Sign Language (de jure official) note: shares sum to 120.8% due to multiple responses on census (2013 est.)
  • 政府
  • 国家统计局
  • 人口,人口:4,885,500 (2018)
  • 面积,平方公里:263,310
  • 人均国内生产总值,美元:41,966 (2018)
  • GDP,目前美元十亿美元:205.0 (2018)
  • 基尼系数:No data
  • 经商容易度排名:1

Shadow Economy

所有数据集:  S
  • S
    • 七月 2017
      来源: Johannes Kepler University
      上传者: Knoema
      访问日期: 12 三月, 2019
      选择数据集
      Data cited at: Shadow Economies around the World: New Results for 158 Countries over 1991-2015 by Friedrisch SCHNEIDER. Working Paper No. 1710 July 2017   Abstract: This paper is a first attempt to estimate the size and development of the shadow economy of 158 countries over the period 1991 up to 2015. Using the Multiple Indicators, Multiple Causes (MIMIC) method we apply for the first time (i) the light intensity approach instead of GDP avoiding the problem that quite often GDP is used as a cause and indicator variable, (ii) the Predictive Mean Matching (PMM) method, and (iii) a variety of robustness tests. Results suggest that the average size of the shadow economy of these 158 countries over 1991-2015 is 32.5% of official GDP, which was 34.82% in 1991 and decreased to 30.66% in 2015. The lowest size of the shadow economy East Asian countries with 16.77% averaged over the period 1991- 2015, then follows OECD countries with 18.7% and the highest value have Latin American and sub-Saharan African countries with values above 35%.
    • 一月 2015
      来源: Johannes Kepler University
      上传者: Knoema
      访问日期: 18 十月, 2016
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      Data citation: Schneider, Friedrich & Schneider, Friedrich. (2013). Size and Development of the Shadow Economy of 31 European and 5 other OECD Countries from 2003 to 2012: Some New Facts.  The calculation of the size and development of the shadow economy is done with the MIMIC (Multiple Indicators and Multiple Courses) estimation procedure. Using the MIMIC estimation procedure one gets only relative values and one needs other methods like the currency demand approach or the income discrepancy method, to calibrate the MIMIC values into absolute ones. The calculated values for 2014 are projections for some countries, for 2015 they are projections for all countries, based on the forecasts of the official figures (GDP, unemployment, etc.) of these countries.

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