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奥地利

  • 总统:Dr. Alexander Van der Bellen
  • 总理:Brigitte Bierlein
  • 首都:Vienna
  • 语言:German (official nationwide) 88.6%, Turkish 2.3%, Serbian 2.2%, Croatian (official in Burgenland) 1.6%, other (includes Slovene, official in South Carinthia, and Hungarian, official in Burgenland) 5.3% (2001 est.)
  • 政府
  • 国家统计局
  • 人口,人口:8,847,037 (2018)
  • 面积,平方公里:82,523
  • 人均国内生产总值,美元:51,513 (2018)
  • GDP,目前美元十亿美元:455.7 (2018)
  • 基尼系数:No data
  • 经商容易度排名:26

Pollution

所有数据集:  A B C E F G M N P T U
  • A
    • 三月 2019
      来源: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      上传者: Knoema
      访问日期: 05 三月, 2019
      选择数据集
      Air Emission Accounts are available for European countries and a few non-European countries. The System of Environmental-Economic Accounting (SEEA) Central Framework is an accounting system developed around two objectives: "understanding the interactions between the economy and the environment" and describing "stocks and changes in stocks of environmental assets". The SEEA combines national accounts and environmental statistics in a statistical framework with consistent definitions, classifications and concepts allowing policy makers to evaluate environmental pressures from economic activities at macro- and meso-levels. Data refer to total emissions of CO2 (CO2 emissions from energy use and industrial processes, e.g. cement production), CH4 (methane emissions from solid waste, livestock, mining of hard coal and lignite, rice paddies, agriculture and leaks from natural gas pipelines), N2O (nitrous oxide), HFCs (hydrofluorocarbons), PFCs (perfluorocarbons), (SF6 +NF3) (sulphur hexafluoride and nitrogen trifluoride), SOx (sulphur oxides, NOx (nitrogen oxides), CO (carbon monoxide), NMVOC (non-methane volatile organic compounds), PM2.5 (particulates less that 2.5 µm), PM10 (particulates less that 10 µm) and NH3 (ammonia). The OECD Air Emission Accounts present data based on ISIC rev. 4.
    • 十月 2019
      来源: Eurostat
      上传者: Knoema
      访问日期: 15 十月, 2019
      选择数据集
      Indicator defines the amount of ammonia emissions that is the result of the agricultural sector in economy. Ammonia (NH3) is a colourless, pungent-smelling and corrosive gas that is produced by the decay of organic vegetable matter and from the excrement of humans and animals. When released into the atmosphere, ammonia contributes to the level of air pollution. The EU inventory on air pollution compiled by the European Environment Agency (EEA) under the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP Convention) is fully consistent with national air pollution inventories compiled by the EU Member States.
  • B
    • 四月 2019
      来源: Eurostat
      上传者: Knoema
      访问日期: 20 四月, 2019
      选择数据集
      This indicator is defined as the mean annual BOD5 in rivers, weighted by the number of measuring stations. BOD5 is a measure of the amount of oxygen required by aerobic microorganisms to decompose organic substances in a water sample over a period of five days in the dark at 20°C. It is presented as mg O2/L and indicates the quality of water: the lower the value of BOD5, the lower the organic pollution of the water.
  • C
    • 三月 2019
      来源: Eurostat
      上传者: Knoema
      访问日期: 04 三月, 2019
      选择数据集
      Fertilisers contain important nutrients, such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), which plants absorb from the soil for their growth. With the harvest of crops for human and livestock consumption, or for industrial uses, N and P are removed from the soil. Continuing agricultural production without replenishing soil nutrients could lead to decrease soil fertility and even lead to soil degradation and erosion. Fertilisers are therefore essential to sustain agricultural production. Fertilisers are also used to increase crop yields and improve soil characteristics. The use of manufactured fertilizers as a regular farming practice began in most European countries in the mid to late nineteenth century but the greatest increase in consumption in these countries occurred in the three decades following World War II. The manufacturing of fertilisers greatly enhanced crop yields and agricultural production, and aided the large increase in the world population in the 20th Century. However when the quantity of nutrients applied exceeds the plants' nutritional requirements, there is a greater risk of nutrient losses from agricultural soils into ground and surface water. The resulting higher concentration of nutrients can cause serious degradation of ecosystems (such as eutrophication). Certain forms of Nitrogen can also volatilise into the air as ammonia, contributing to acidification, , atmospheric pollution with micro particules, or with emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O), a potent greenhouse gas contributing to climate change. In addition fertilisers may also have adverse environmental effects resulting from their production processes. More specifically, nitrogenous fertilisers require large amounts of energy to be produced leading potentially to higher levels of greenhouse gas emissions. In a different way, phosphorus fertilisers also have an environmental impact, since the raw materials used to produce them are mined, therefore potentially leading to landscape destruction, water contamination, excessive water consumption or air pollution. This table contains data on the total use of manufactured fertilisers expressed in tonnes of N, P, P2O5, K and K2O received from Fertilizers Europe. Manufactured fertilisers are also often referred to as inorganic fertilisers or mineral fertilisers. For a definition see 3.4. Fertilizers Europe represents the major fertilizer manufacturers in Europe. Its members account for approximately 81 percent of the region's nitrogen fertilizer capacity and around 55 percent of phosphate fertilizer capacity (EU-25 and Norway).
  • E
    • 八月 2019
      来源: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      上传者: Knoema
      访问日期: 06 八月, 2019
      选择数据集
      EAMFP growth measures the residual growth in the joint production of both the desirable and the undesirable outputs that cannot be explained by changes in the consumption of factor inputs (including labour, produced capital and natural capital). Therefore, for a given growth of input use, EAMFP increases when GDP increases or when pollution decreases. As part of the growth accounting framework underlying the EAMFP indicator, the growth contribution of natural capital and growth adjustment for pollution abatement indicators are derived: Growth contribution of natural capital - measures to what extent a country's growth in output is attributable to natural resource use; Growth adjustment for pollution abatement - measures to what extent a country's GDP growth should be corrected for pollution abatement efforts - adding what has been undervalued due to resources being diverted to pollution abatement, or deducing the ‘excess' growth which is generated at the expense of environmental quality.
    • 二月 2019
      来源: Eurostat
      上传者: Knoema
      访问日期: 19 二月, 2019
      选择数据集
      The indicator shows the population-weighted concentration of PM10 and PM2.5 to which the urban population is potentially exposed. Fine and coarse particulates (PM10) are those whose diameter is less than 10 micrometres, whilst fine particulates (PM2.5) are those whose diameters are less than 2.5 micrometers. Particulates can be carried deep into the lungs where they can cause inflammation and a worsening of the condition of people with heart and lung diseases. The smaller the particles the deeper they travel into the lungs, with more potential for harm. According to the recommendations of the World Health Organisation (WHO) the annual mean concentration is the best indicator for PM-related health effects. In 1996, the Environment Council adopted Framework Directive 96/62/EC on ambient air quality assessment and management. The first Daughter Directive (1999/30/EC) relating to limit values for PM10 and other pollutants in ambient air fixed an annual limit value of 40 micrograms of PM10 per cubic meter (40 µg/m3). Note that the WHO guideline value is 20 µg/m3 (annual mean). More recently, the Directive 2008/50/EC set a framework to define and establish objectives for ambient air quality and to harmonise methods and criteria among the Member States. This does have limits for PM2.5. The limit value that was due to be met on 1 January 2015 is 25 µg/m3, which falls to 20 µg/m3 by 2020. Note that the WHO guideline value is 10 µg/m3 (annual mean). The directive 2008/50/EC also places a requirement on Member States to assess and reduce population exposure to concentrations of PM2.5 by 2020. The magnitude of the required reduction depends on national average concentrations between 2009 and 2011. Where concentrations for those years were greater than 22 µg/m3, all appropriate measures should be used to reduce below 18 µg/m3 by 2020.
    • 十一月 2018
      来源: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      上传者: Knoema
      访问日期: 01 八月, 2019
      选择数据集
      Air pollution is considered one of the most pressing environmental and health issues across OECD countries and beyond. According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) has potentially the most significant adverse effects on health compared to other pollutants. PM2.5 can be inhaled and cause serious health problems including both respiratory and cardiovascular disease, having its most severe effects on children and elderly people. Exposure to PM2.5 has been shown to considerably increase the risk of heart disease and stroke in particular. For these reasons, population exposure to (outdoor or ambient) PM2.5 has been identified as an OECD Green Growth headline indicator. The underlying PM2.5 concentrations estimates are taken from van Donkelaar et al. (2016). They have been derived using satellite observations and a chemical transport model, calibrated to global ground-based measurements using Geographically Weighted Regression at 0.01° resolution. The underlying population data, Gridded Population of the World, version 4 (GPWv4) are taken from the Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC) at the NASA. The underlying boundary geometries are taken from the Global Administrative Unit Layers (GAUL) developed by the FAO, and the OECD Territorial Classification, when available. The current version of the database presents much more variation with respect to the previous one. The reason is that the underlying concentration estimates previously included smoothed multi-year averages and interpolations; while in the current version annual concentration estimates are used. Establishing trends of pollution exposure should be done with care, especially at smaller output areas, as their inputs (e.g. underlying data and models) can change from year to year. We recommend using a 3-year moving average for visualisation.
    • 五月 2019
      来源: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      上传者: Knoema
      访问日期: 28 五月, 2019
      选择数据集
      Air pollution is considered one of the most pressing environmental and health issues across OECD countries and beyond. According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) has potentially the most significant adverse effects on health compared to other pollutants. PM2.5 can be inhaled and cause serious health problems including both respiratory and cardiovascular disease, having its most severe effects on children and elderly people. Exposure to PM2.5 has been shown to considerably increase the risk of heart disease and stroke in particular. For these reasons, population exposure to (outdoor or ambient) PM2.5 has been identified as an OECD Green Growth headline indicator. The underlying PM2.5 concentrations estimates are taken from van Donkelaar et al. (2016). They have been derived using satellite observations and a chemical transport model, calibrated to global ground-based measurements using Geographically Weighted Regression at 0.01° resolution. The underlying population data, Gridded Population of the World, version 4 (GPWv4) are taken from the Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC) at the NASA. The underlying boundary geometries are taken from the Global Administrative Unit Layers (GAUL) developed by the FAO, and the OECD Territorial Classification, when available. The current version of the database presents much more variation with respect to the previous one. The reason is that the underlying concentration estimates previously included smoothed multi-year averages and interpolations; while in the current version annual concentration estimates are used. Establishing trends of pollution exposure should be done with care, especially at smaller output areas, as their inputs (e.g. underlying data and models) can change from year to year. We recommend using a 3-year moving average for visualization.
  • F
    • 三月 2018
      来源: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      上传者: Knoema
      访问日期: 03 十二月, 2018
      选择数据集
      Austria: Long-term annual average 1961-90 Belgium: Data exclude underground flows and include estimates Canada: Long-term annual average 1971-2004 Chile: Long-term annual average 2000-2014 Colombia: Long-term annual average 1974-2012 Czech Republic: The long-term annual average refers to the latest 20 years Denmark: Long-term annual average 1995-2015 Estonia: Long-term annual average refers to the latest 30 years and includes only data about fresh surface water France: Long-term annual average : 1981-2010. Inflow and outflow: outflow is computed using the throughput of rivers having their source in France but the mouth outside France; measures are taken at the French border using the daily throughputs. Precipitation and real evapotranspiration data are derived from a gridded atmospheric model (grid point of 8 by 8 km2) applied to the territory of metropolitan France. Germany: Long-term annual average 1995-2015 Hungary: Long-term annual average 1971-2000 Ireland: Long-term annual average 1981-2010. Groundwater figures are not available and therefore are not included. Israel: Long-term annual average 2000-2013 Italy: Long-term annual average 1971-2000 Japan: Long-term annual average 1971-2006 Korea: Long-term annual average 1974-2003 Latvia: Long-term annual average 2005-2013 Lithuania: Long-term annual average 2000-2014 Mexico: The long-term annual average covers 30 years Netherlands: Long-term annual average 1981-2010 New Zealand: Long-term annual average 1995-2014 Norway: The data for precipitation and evotranspiration refer to the period LTAA (long-term annual average) 1961-90 whereas the others to the period LTAA 1981-2010, that is why precipitation minus evotranspiration is different from internal resources. Poland: Long-term annual average 1951-2014. Estimates on the base of mean annual flow. For more information, see: http://www.kzgw.gov.pl/ , http://www.pgi.gov.pl/ , http://www.psh.gov.pl/ , http://www.imgw.pl/ Slovak Republic: Long-term annual average is 1961-1990 for internal resources, 1961-2000 for external inflow Slovenia: Long-term annual average is 1971-2000 Sweden: Long-term annual average : 1990-2009. The difference between precipitation and evapotranspiration refers to storage Switzerland: Long-term annual average : 1981-2010 Turkey: Long-term annual average: data for internal flow refers to the period 1980-2011 Costa Rica: The long-term annual average refers to 1990-2014 Russia: The long-term annual average refers to 1936-1980
  • G
    • 十月 2019
      来源: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      上传者: Knoema
      访问日期: 08 十月, 2019
      选择数据集
      Netherlands) Non-point sources include diffuse emissions from: a) road, rail and water transport, b) corrosion processes, c) run-off and drainage from agricultural soils, d) atmospheric deposition (excluding deposition on marine waters), e) urban run-off to sewers systems. Direct discharges from non-point sources: sum of direct discharges from diffuse sources and transfers like drainage and run-off from soils and direct atmospheric deposition at fresh surface waters (only N, Cu and Zn). Total discharges to the sea include atmospheric deposition at marine surface water. In most cases atmospheric deposition is the larger part of the total load to marine waters Sweden) Industrial wastewater, total discharged only includes industrial wastewater treatment plants with a permit in the national register for environmental reports and industries with own treatment and release to water. Excluded are industrial wastewater treatment plants that transfer water to urban wastewater treatment plants
    • 九月 2019
      来源: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      上传者: Knoema
      访问日期: 24 九月, 2019
      选择数据集
      This dataset shows data provided by Member countries' authorities through the questionnaire on the state of the environment (OECD/Eurostat), and to Eurostat through the Waste Statistics Regulation. They were updated or revised on the basis of data from other national and international sources available to the OECD Secretariat, and on the basis of comments received from national Delegates. Selected updates were also done in the context of the OECD Environmental Performance Reviews. The data are harmonised through the work of the OECD Working Party on Environmental Information (WPEI) and benefit from continued data quality efforts in OECD member countries, the OECD itself and other international organisations. In many countries systematic collection of environmental data has a short history; sources are typically spread across a range of agencies and levels of government, and information is often collected for other purposes. When interpreting these data, one should keep in mind that definitions and measurement methods vary among countries, and that inter-country comparisons require careful interpretation. One should also note that data presented here refer to national level and may conceal major subnational differences.
    • 四月 2018
      来源: United Nations Statistics Division
      上传者: Knoema
      访问日期: 21 十一月, 2018
      选择数据集
      Environmental Indicators disseminate global environment statistics on ten indicator themes compiled from a wide range of data sources. The themes and indicator tables were selected based on the current demands for international environmental statistics and the availability of internationally comparable data. Indicator tables, charts and maps with relatively good quality and coverage across countries, as well as links to other international sources, are provided under each theme. Statistics on Water and Waste are based on official statistics supplied by national statistical offices and/or ministries of environment (or equivalent institutions) in response to the biennial UNSD/UNEP Questionnaire on Environment Statistics, complemented with comparable statistics from OECD and Eurostat, and water resources data from FAO Aqua stat. Statistics on other themes were compiled by UNSD from other international sources. In a few cases, UNSD has made some calculations in order to derive the indicators. However, generally no adjustments have been made to the values received from the source. UNSD is not responsible for the quality, completeness/availability, and validity of the data. Environment statistics is still in an early stage of development in many countries, and data are often sparse. The indicators selected here are those of relatively good quality and geographic coverage. Information on data quality and comparability is given at the end of each table together with other important metadata.
  • M
    • 十二月 2018
      来源: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      上传者: Knoema
      访问日期: 11 十二月, 2018
      选择数据集
      Air pollution is considered one of the most pressing environmental and health issues across OECD countries and beyond. According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ground-level ozone (O3) have potentially the most significant adverse effects on health compared to other pollutants. PM2.5 can be inhaled and cause serious health problems including both respiratory and cardiovascular disease, having its most severe effects on children and elderly people. Exposure to PM2.5 has been shown to considerably increase the risk of heart disease and stroke in particular. For these reasons, population exposure to (outdoor or ambient) PM2.5 has been identified as an OECD Green Growth headline indicator. Exposure to ground-level ozone (O3) has serious consequences for human health, contributing to, or triggering, respiratory diseases. These include breathing problems, asthma and reduced lung function (WHO, 2016; Brauer et al., 2016). Ozone exposure is highest in emission-dense countries with warm and sunny summers. The most important determinants are background atmospheric chemistry, climate, anthropogenic and biogenic emissions of ozone precursors such as volatile organic compounds, and the ratios between different emitted chemicals.
  • N
    • 四月 2019
      来源: Eurostat
      上传者: Knoema
      访问日期: 20 四月, 2019
      选择数据集
      mg NO3 per litreThe indicator refers to concentrations of NO3 in groundwater measured as milligrams per litre (mg NO3/L). Data are taken from well samples and aggregated to annual average concentrations for groundwater bodies in Europe. Only complete series after inter/extrapolation are included.The number of groundwater bodies included per country is given in parentheses: 1992-2012: Europe (400), Austria (13), Belgium (24), Bulgaria (24), Denmark (97), Estonia (20), Finland (33), Germany (98), Ireland (62), Liechtenstein (1), Lithuania (2), Netherlands (9), Norway (1), Portugal (2), Slovakia (10), Slovenia (4). 2000-2012: Europe (1242), Austria (14), Belgium (38), Bulgaria (42), Cyprus (4), Czech Republic (63), Denmark (108), Estonia (27), Finland (34), France (220), Germany (217), Ireland (89), Italy (7), Liechtenstein (1), Lithuania (3), Luxembourg (3), Malta (2), Netherlands (9), Norway (1), Portugal (10), Serbia (21), Slovakia (10), Slovenia (4), Spain (158), Switzerland (30), United Kingdom (127).
  • P
    • 四月 2019
      来源: Eurostat
      上传者: Knoema
      访问日期: 20 四月, 2019
      选择数据集
      mg PO4 per litreIndicator measures the concentration of Phosphate (PO4) per litre in the dissolved phase from water samples from river stations and aggregated to annual average values. At high concentrations it can cause water quality problems, such as eutrophication, by triggering the growth of macrophytes and algae. Only complete series after inter/extrapolation are included in the data presented.
    • 十月 2019
      来源: Eurostat
      上传者: Knoema
      访问日期: 16 十月, 2019
      选择数据集
      The domain "Income and living conditions" covers four topics: people at risk of poverty or social exclusion, income distribution and monetary poverty, living conditions and material deprivation, which are again structured into collections of indicators on specific topics. The collection "People at risk of poverty or social exclusion" houses main indicator on risk of poverty or social inclusion included in the Europe 2020 strategy as well as the intersections between sub-populations of all Europe 2020 indicators on poverty and social exclusion. The collection "Income distribution and monetary poverty" houses collections of indicators relating to poverty risk, poverty risk of working individuals as well as the distribution of income. The collection "Living conditions" hosts indicators relating to characteristics and living conditions of households, characteristics of the population according to different breakdowns, health and labour conditions, housing conditions as well as childcare related indicators. The collection "Material deprivation" covers indicators relating to economic strain, durables, housing deprivation and environment of the dwelling.
    • 十月 2019
      来源: Eurostat
      上传者: Knoema
      访问日期: 16 十月, 2019
      选择数据集
      The indicator shows the percentage of the total population who declare that they are affected either by noise from neighbours or from outside.
  • T
    • 十月 2019
      来源: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      上传者: Knoema
      访问日期: 08 十月, 2019
      选择数据集
      Mexico: "Total urban wastewater treatment" include some plants whose treatment type is not identified Netherlands: Other waste water treatment, design capacity BOD 1000 kg O2/day: the design capacity is expressed in Total Oxygen Demand (1000 kg O2/day, not BOD). This value is based on pollution equivalents of 136 grams O2 per day.
  • U
    • 三月 2018
      来源: Eurostat
      上传者: Knoema
      访问日期: 12 三月, 2018
      选择数据集
      The indicator shows the population-weighted concentration of ozone to which the urban population is potentially exposed. The principle metric for assessing the effects of ozone on human health is, according to the World Health Organisation’s recommendations (*), the daily maximum 8-hour mean. Ozone effects should be assessed over a full year. Current evidence is insufficient to derive a level below which ozone has no effect on mortality. However, for practical reason it is recommended to consider an exposure parameter which is the sum of excess of daily maximum 8-h means over the cut-off of 70 μg/m3 (35 ppb) calculated for all days in a year. This exposure parameter has been indicated as SOMO35 (sum of means over 35), and is extensively used in the health impact assessments, including the Clean Air for Europe (CAFE) Programme leading to the Commission Communication on the Thematic Strategy on Air Pollution. The indicator is published by Eurostat based on data from the European Environment Agency (EEA). The indicator is a Sustainable Development Indicator (SDI). It has been chosen for the assessment of the progress towards the objectives and targets of the EU Sustainable Development Strategy.   tsdph380´s table: Eurobase > Tables by themes > Environment and Energy > Environment > Greenhouse gases/Air polution > Urban population exposure to air pollution by ozone (tsdph380) tsdph380´s table within the SDI set: Eurobase > Tables on EU policy> Sustainable Development Indicators > Public health > Determinants of health >Urban population exposure to air pollution by ozone (tsdph380)   (*) UN ECE (2004) Summary report prepared by the joint Task Force on the Health Aspects of Air Pollution of the World Health Organization/European Centre for Environment and Health and the Executive Body, EB.AIR/WG.1/2004/11
    • 二月 2019
      来源: Eurostat
      上传者: Knoema
      访问日期: 19 二月, 2019
      选择数据集
      The indicator shows the population-weighted concentration of PM10 and PM2.5 to which the urban population is potentially exposed. Fine and coarse particulates (PM10) are those whose diameter is less than 10 micrometres, whilst fine particulates (PM2.5) are those whose diameters are less than 2.5 micrometers. Particulates can be carried deep into the lungs where they can cause inflammation and a worsening of the condition of people with heart and lung diseases. The smaller the particles the deeper they travel into the lungs, with more potential for harm. According to the recommendations of the World Health Organisation (WHO) the annual mean concentration is the best indicator for PM-related health effects. In 1996, the Environment Council adopted Framework Directive 96/62/EC on ambient air quality assessment and management. The first Daughter Directive (1999/30/EC) relating to limit values for PM10 and other pollutants in ambient air fixed an annual limit value of 40 micrograms of PM10 per cubic meter (40 µg/m3). Note that the WHO guideline value is 20 µg/m3 (annual mean). More recently, the Directive 2008/50/EC set a framework to define and establish objectives for ambient air quality and to harmonise methods and criteria among the Member States. This does have limits for PM2.5. The limit value that was due to be met on 1 January 2015 is 25 µg/m3, which falls to 20 µg/m3 by 2020. Note that the WHO guideline value is 10 µg/m3 (annual mean). The directive 2008/50/EC also places a requirement on Member States to assess and reduce population exposure to concentrations of PM2.5 by 2020. The magnitude of the required reduction depends on national average concentrations between 2009 and 2011. Where concentrations for those years were greater than 22 µg/m3, all appropriate measures should be used to reduce below 18 µg/m3 by 2020.

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