Research and Development (R&D) is the field of statistics comprising data on science, technology and innovation. This data is of great significance in the modern economy as it helps to build broad and comprehensive vision of innovation activity that is acknowledged by the most of developed and developing countries as the key driver behind the economic growth and competitiveness. That is why, policymakers try to induce innovation activity by focusing on the role of technology, information and learning in economic performance or, in other words, introducing the concept known as "knowledge-based economy". To monitor the progress of moving towards knowledge-based economy there have been introduced a lot of statistical indicators of innovation inputs, such as R&D expenditure and R&D personnel as well as indicators of innovation outputs, for example, number of patent or design applications. There are also several indices showing overall performance of the countries in the pipeline towards building innovation-driven economies, such as Knowledge Economy Index, Global Innovation Index, Innovation Union Scoreboard and Global Competitiveness Index. These and many other indicators of R&D topic are available on our site and can be easily accessed through the present page.
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The data shows the sectoral distribution of world's top 2500 companies that invested €607.2 billion in R&D as of 2014 - representing about 90% of the total expenditure on R&D by business worldwide. The sample contains 608 companies based in the EU, 829 companies based in the US, 360 in Japan and 703 from the rest of the world.
Since 2008, gross domestic expenditure on R&D as a percentage of GDP has recorded a slight increase. In 2014, the value stood at 2.03% of GDP, compared with 1.85% in 2008. The increase between 2008 and 2009 during the economic crisis reflects a wider EU effort to stimulate economic growth by boosting public expenditure on R&D. In 2014, the EU was 0.97 percentage points below its target for 2020, which envisages increasing combined public and private R&D expenditure to reach 3% of GDP. Main page: Progress towards Europe 2020 headline targets
Research and Development is an activity aimed on the acquisition of new knowledgeandits practical application in the process of creation of newproductsortechnologies. R&D includes wide set of activities starting from advancing of theoretical hypothesis to development of new products. Since nowadays in businessthe major partof added valueis shifting from theproduction phaseto the development phase, the role ofR&D is growing. Besides, the competititon at the market is rapidly increasing, R&D activity can become the competitive advantage for high-tech business. The R&D resultsaffectkey decisionsin high-tech business. On the other hand, Research...