Research and Development (R&D) is the field of statistics comprising data on science, technology and innovation. This data is of great significance in the modern economy as it helps to build broad and comprehensive vision of innovation activity that is acknowledged by the most of developed and developing countries as the key driver behind the economic growth and competitiveness. That is why, policymakers try to induce innovation activity by focusing on the role of technology, information and learning in economic performance or, in other words, introducing the concept known as "knowledge-based economy". To monitor the progress of moving towards knowledge-based economy there have been introduced a lot of statistical indicators of innovation inputs, such as R&D expenditure and R&D personnel as well as indicators of innovation outputs, for example, number of patent or design applications. There are also several indices showing overall performance of the countries in the pipeline towards building innovation-driven economies, such as Knowledge Economy Index, Global Innovation Index, Innovation Union Scoreboard and Global Competitiveness Index. These and many other indicators of R&D topic are available on our site and can be easily accessed through the present page.
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The USA has the highest research and development expenditures in the world. In 2008 it was almost $400 billions or 2.8% of GDP. The gap between the U.S. and other countries is essential. The rest from the top five (Japan, China, Germany and France) only taken together spend as much as the U.S. The model of R&D expenditures differs from country to country. For example, expenditures on basic research account for 17% in total R&D expenditures in the U.S. compared to only 5% in China. Click on the country name in the table to explore the structure of R&D expenditures of certain country.
Growing world population, global food demand and the lack of extensive factors of production push food and agriculture producers to find a new ways to increase output. According to USDA, private agriculture research and development (R&D) expenditures, increased from $6.9 billions in 2000 to $11 billions in 2010. R&D expenditures for crop seed & biotechnology, crop protection chemicals and farm machinery account for about 85% of total private R&D expenditures in the world. Try Agriculture 101 Quiz to check your knowlege of agriculture industry.