United Nations Economic Commission for Europe
访问日期： 18 十月, 2018
Gender pay gap is the difference between men’s and women’s average earnings from employment, shown as a percentage of men’s average earnings.The UNECE gender statistics database presents two indicators on gender pay gap, which represent two different concerns of gender equality.
Gender Pay Gap in hourly wage rates refers to the gender gap in average hourly earnings. This indicator aims to capture the difference between men’s and women’s overall position in the labor market. It measures the difference between men’s and women’s wage rates independent of the number of hours worked, the type of activity or the type of occupation.
Gender Pay Gap in monthly earnings refers to the gender gap in average monthly earnings. This indicator aims to capture the variance between men’s and women’s earnings over a specific period of time. It reflects differences in time worked and type of work performed, which translates into gender differences in economic autonomy.
Wage rates are earnings elements meant to be measured, as stipulated by the ILO Resolution concerning an integrated system of wages statistics (ILO, 1973), in relation to an appropriate time period such as the hour, day, week, month or other customary period used for purposes of determining the wage rates concerned. In the case of these statistics, the reference time period is the hour.
Wage rates should include basic wages, cost-of-living allowances and other guaranteed and regularly paid allowances, but exclude overtime payments, bonuses and gratuities, family allowances and other social security payments made by employers. Ex gratia payments in kind, supplementary to normal wage rates, are also excluded.
Earnings relate to remuneration in cash and in kind paid to employees, as a rule at regular intervals, for time worked or work done together with remuneration for time not worked, such as for annual vacation, other paid leave or holidays.
Earnings include direct wages and salaries for the time worked, or work done, remuneration for time not worked, bonuses and gratuities and housing and family allowances paid by the employer directly to his employee.
Earnings exclude employers’ contributions in respect of their employees paid to social security and pension schemes and also the benefits received by employees under these schemes. Earnings also exclude severance and termination pay.
Gross earnings refer to total earnings before any deductions are made by the employer in respect of taxes, contributions of employees to social security and pension schemes, life insurance premiums, union dues and other obligations of employees.
Net earnings refer to pay allocated to the worker after deductions are made by the employer in respect of taxes, contributions of employees to social security and pension schemes, life insurance premiums, union dues and other obligations of employees.