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Values are expressed in United States dollars (USD) and refer to declared transaction values. Imports are reported c.i.f. and exports are reported f.o.b. with the exception of Australia, Canada, Mexico, Slovak Republic and United States where imports are reported f.o.b. United States exports are reported f.a.s. Data published are expressed as monthly averages. Quarterly and annual data are calculated as averages of monthly figures. The option chosen by OECD is to convert exchange rates for periods prior to entry into European Monetary Union (EMU), i.e. prior to 1999 for all members apart from Greece, which acceded in 2001, from the former national currency exchange rate using the appropriate irrevocable exchange rate. Such a conversion facilitates comparisons over time within a country and also preserves the historical evolution (i.e. growth rates). However, pre-EMU euro rates are notional units and are not always suitable to form area aggregates or for cross country comparisons. For further details, see The Statistics Brief Number 2, February 2002.